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Analysis and risk assessment

What we do

One of the tasks of the European Labour Authority is to assess risks and carry out labour mobility analyses. This is done in cooperation with Member States and where appropriate, the social partners and EU services, agencies and networks active in the field of social policy and employment.

ELA’s risk assessment and analytical work addresses topics such as labour market imbalances, sector-specific challenges and recurring problems. In addition, ELA may carry out focused in-depth analyses and studies to investigate specific issues.

At ELA, the analytical and risk assessment capacity is performed by the Labour Mobility Analysis and Risk Assessment (LMARA) team, whose main domains are operational and strategic risk assessment, analytical activities and outreach and capacity building.

ELA’s analytical and risk assessment capacity is deployed to:

  • Support the planning, preparation and execution of cross-border enforcement actions;
  • Promote cooperation and exchange of information between Member States;
  • Identify and fill information gaps for individuals and businesses;
  • Support capacity building activities for stakeholders.


Report - Construction sector: issues in information provision, enforcement of labour mobility law, social security coordination regulations, and cooperation between Member States

This study analyses challenges related to the enforcement of labour mobility and social security laws in the construction sector, with a specific focus on the posting of workers. Despite measures in place in the European Union Member States to ensure compliance with posting rules, their enforcement has been challenging in the construction sector. Posted workers and their employers are also not always fully aware of their rights and obligations despite several initiatives to improve the communication of relevant information by social partners, Member States and the European Commission. The sector also struggles with labour and skill shortages, and although some cross-border initiatives exist to address these shortages, they are often hindered by language and cultural differences, along with limited recognition of skills and qualifications. The findings in this study suggest that the European Labour Authority (ELA) could play a more active role in supporting the improved enforcement of posting rules in the construction sector in Member States, the communication of information to workers and employers concerned, and contributing to the improvement of data collection on labour mobility in the construction sector.

Handbook - Artificial intelligence and algorithms in risk assessment

Handbook Summary

This ELA handbook aims to enhance the understanding of bias and related legal, ethical and practical issues that may arise in the development and utilization of algorithms and Artificial Intelligence (AI) for risk assessment. It provides insights into relevant regulations and methods to mitigate bias and prevent discrimination. 

The handbook was elaborated as part of the 2023 ELA programme on addressing ethical and practical issues in the use of Artificial Intelligence and algorithms in risk assessment. This programme  included an online training about addressing bias in AI and algorithms for risk assessment, and related ethical, legal and practical issues, which constitutes the basis of this handbook. This training was provided by Prof. Raphaële Xenidis and Prof. Benjamin van Giffen. 

Application of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in exchanging data for risk assessment

This practical manual has been prepared as a follow-up to a training session for analysts on the application of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in exchanging data for risk assessment related to labour law and social security issues. It serves two purposes. Firstly, it summarises the main legal issues related to the processing and sharing of data for risk assessment under the GDPR as discussed during the training. Secondly, it presents examples from practice or case-law and good practices identified during the online session, as well as through subsequent exchanges with national competent authorities.

Mapping of national measures taken by the EU and EFTA Member States in employment and social security for displaced persons coming from Ukraine

The mapping exercise provides an overview of the legal frameworks and other public support instruments adopted at national level related to the implementation of the Temporary Protection Directive in the field of employment and social security and other national measures having an impact on the employment and/or social security of the displaced persons coming from Ukraine.
Please find below the individual country fiches for EU and EFTA Member States (updated versions - February 2023):

AT| Austria  FI| Finland MT| Malta
BE| Belgium FR| France NL| the Netherlands
BG| Bulgaria HR| Croatia NO| Norway
CH| Switzerland  HU| Hungary PL| Poland
CY| Cyprus  IE| Ireland PT| Portugal
CZ| Czechia  IS| Iceland RO| Romania
DE| Germany  IT| Italy SE| Sweden
DK| Denmark LI| Liechtenstein SI| Slovenia
EE| Estonia LT| Lithuania SK| Slovakia
EL| Greece LU| Luxemburg  
ES| Spain LV| Latvia  


Impact of teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic on the applicable social security

This ELA report provides an overview of measures and/or actions taken by the EU Member States to facilitate a flexible approach to the applicable social security for cross-border workers who telework from their country of residence instead of working in the usual place of employment abroad. It also explains different categories of cross-border workers who could be affected by the measures introduced by the EU Member States. The report contains user-friendly country fiches which individuals can consult to find out more information based on their cross-border situation. The country fiches also provide the necessary contact details of the relevant national competent authorities should further assistance be required.
Fiches with country-specific information: 

NB: The measures presented in this report reflect the situation as of July 2021. The information provided, including the country fiches, is indicative only and in case of questions, please always refer to the relevant authorities.

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